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A Quadrotor helicopter copy

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Description

a quadrotor helicopter or quadrotor

A quadcopter, also called a quadrotor helicopter or quadrotor,[1] is a multirotor helicopter that is lifted and propelled by four rotors. Quadcopters are classified as rotorcraft, as opposed to fixed-wing aircraft, because their lift is generated by a set of rotors (vertically oriented propellers).

Quadcopters generally use two pairs of identical fixed pitched propellers; two clockwise (CW) and two counter-clockwise (CCW). These use independent variation of the speed of each rotor to achieve control. By changing the speed of each rotor it is possible to specifically generate a desired total thrust; to locate for the centre of thrust both laterally and longitudinally; and to create a desired total torque, or turning force.[2][3]

Quadcopters differ from conventional helicopters which use rotors which are able to vary the pitch of their blades dynamically as they move around the rotor hub. In the early days of flight, quadcopters (then referred to as 'quadrotors') were seen as possible solutions to some of the persistent problems in vertical flight; torque-induced control issues (as well as efficiency issues originating from the tail rotor, which generates no useful lift) can be eliminated by counter-rotation and the relatively short blades are much easier to construct. A number of manned designs appeared in the 1920s and 1930s. These vehicles were among the first successful heavier-than-air vertical take off and landing (VTOL) vehicles.[4] However, early prototypes suffered from poor performance,[4] and latter prototypes required too much pilot work load, due to poor stability augmentation[5] and limited control authority.

In the late 2000s, advances in electronics allowed the production of cheap lightweight flight controllers, accelerometers, global positioning system and cameras. This resulted in a rapid proliferation of small, cheap consumer quadcopters along with other multi rotor designs. Quadcopter designs also became popular in unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV or drone) research. With their small size and maneuverability, these quadcopters can be flown indoors as well as outdoors.[1][6]

At a small size, quadcopters are cheaper and more durable than conventional helicopters due to their mechanical simplicity.[7] Their smaller blades are also advantageous because they possess less kinetic energy, reducing their ability to cause damage. For small-scale quadcopters, this makes the vehicles safer for close interaction. It is also possible to fit quadcopters with guards that enclose the rotors, further reducing the potential for damage.[8] However, as size increases, fixed propeller quadcopters develop disadvantages over conventional helicopters. Increasing blade size increases their momentum. This means that changes in blade speed take longer, which negatively impacts control. At the same time, increasing blade size improves efficiency as it takes less energy to generate thrust by moving a large mass of air at a slow speed than by moving a small mass of air at high speed. Therefore, increasing efficiency comes at the cost of control. Helicopters do not experience this problem as increasing the size of the rotor disk does not significantly impact the ability to control blade pitch.

Documents

Quadcopter Bee copy

Quadrotor Helicopter copy

BOM

ID Name Designator Footprint Quantity
1 STM32F103T8U6 U4 VFQN36_M 1
2 MPU-6050 U3 QFN50P440X440X80-24N 1
3 HMC5883 U5 PLCC50P250X250X90-16N by panda 1
4 2.2nf C13 0603C 1
5 0.1uf C14,C3,C4,C9,C10,C17,C18 0603C 7
6 10K R6,R13,R9,R10,R14 0603R 5
7 0.22uf C16 0603C 1
8 4.7uF C19 0603C 1
9 4.7k R11,R12,R7 0603R 3
10 8MHZ Y1 XTAL-HC49US 1
11 22p C12 0603C 1
12 22pf C11 0603C 1
13 1uf C15 0603C 1
14 470 R8 0603R 1
15 SWD接口 P2 HDR1X5 1
16 1M R5 0603R 1
17 ME620633 U2 SOT-23 1
18 47uF C1,C2 C3216A 2
19 BATTERY P1 HDR1X2 1
20 SI2302 Q1,Q3,Q2,Q4 SOT-23 4
21 Motor B1,B3,B4,B2 HX2.54-2 4
22 LED0 D1,D2,D3 0805 3
23 470R R1,R2,R4 0603R 3
24 xK RV2,RV1 0603R 2
25 VSS1 C5 0603C 1
26 VSS2 C6 0603C 1
27 VSS3 C7,C8 0603C 2
28 0R R3 0603R 1
29 BlueTooth U1 HM_05_06 1
30 Header 4 P3 HDR1X4 1

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