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TP4056 LiPo Charger Protector Booster 3A

6 months ago 427
  • Description
  • Documents
  • BOM
  • Attachments
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Description

1. Overview

Li-Ion battery charger, protector and 5V/3A booster. Use unprotected Li-Ion batteries with low internal resistance which are rated for a discharge current of at least 7A! Connect the battery with short wires of 20AWG or thicker! Attach a heatsink on the back side of the PCB when drawing more than 2A of current continuously! Use a slide switch that can withstand a current of 6A!

IMG_20200416_162630_x.jpg

2. Working Principle

For battery charging the TP4056 (U1) is used. The TP4056 is a complete constant-current/constant-voltage linear charger for single cell lithium-ion batteries. The charge voltage is fixed at 4.2V and the charge current (max 1000mA) can be programmed externally with a single resistor (R3). The TP4056 automatically terminates the charge cycle when the charge current drops to 1/10th the programmed value after the final float voltage is reached. Other features include current monitor, under voltage lockout and automatic recharge.

For the battery protection (overcharge, overdischarge, overcurrent and short circuit protection) the DW01A (U2) is used in combination with two FS8205 dual MOSFETs in parallel (Q1 + Q2). The DW01A is constantly measuring the voltage across the battery and the current flowing in (when charging) or coming out (when discharging). If something goes wrong it takes the battery out of the circuit by closing the MOSFETs which act like a switch between the negative side of the battery (B-) and ground. The overcurrent protection works by comparing the voltage drop across the MOSFET with the internal 150mV reference of the DW01A. As the RDS(on) of one FS8205 is around 2x25mOhm, the DW01A would close the MOSFET at 150mV/50mOhm = 3A if only one FS8205 were used. By using two FS8205 in parallel, the resistance is cut in half, so the DW01A shuts down at 150mV/25mOhm = 6A and one FS8205 must only handle half of the current (3A) which is well within its specs. In this way, up to 6 amps can flow from the battery into the boost converter with a maximum voltage drop of 150mV.

To step up the voltage to 5V the FP6277 low-cost synchronous boost converter is used (U3). Instead of a diode that is used in conventional boost converters, it switches a second built-in MOSFET in sync with the first via the PWM signal. This significantly increases efficiency and thus higher output currents are possible.

3. Performance

FP6277_efficiency_x.pngTP4056_charge_x.png

4. License

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This work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)

Documents

LiPo Power Board 3A

LiPo_PowerBoard_3A_v1.0

BOM

ID Name Designator Footprint Quantity
1 Connector VIN,BAT,VOUT HDR-1X2/2.54 3
2 3.3uH L1 IND-SMD_L7.8-W7.0_0630 1
3 10u C2 0805 1
4 100u C6 1206 1
5 22u C5,C4 0805 2
6 100n C1,C3 0805 2
7 POWER OUT USB2 USB-2.0-A-F-90-JCJ-H9.36 1
8 POWER IN USB1 USB PWR CONNECTOR 1
9 Slide Switch PWR SLIDE SWITCH DPDT 1P2T 1
10 1k R4 0805 1
11 27k R6 0805 1
12 75k R7 0805 1
13 1k2 R3 0805 1
14 1k5 R2,R1 0805 2
15 100R R5 0805 1
16 10k R8 0805 1
17 DW01A U2 SOT-23-6 1
18 FP6277XR-G1 U3 SOP-8_EP_150MIL 1
19 CHRG LED2 LED-0805 1
20 FS8205 Q1,Q2 SOT-23-6 2
21 FULL LED1 LED-0805 1
22 TP4056 U1 SOP-8_EP_150MIL 1

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Comments (10)

thyg Reply

Thank you so much for making this! Unbelievable, I cannot wait to try this out!

Stefan Wagner Reply

@thyg I finally reached 3 amps! ;-)

thyg Reply

Is the full 7A passing through the slide switch?  I found https://lcsc.com/product-detail/Toggle-Switches_XKB-Enterprise-SS-12D10L3_C319013.html  which is rated for 5A.
Could you give any insight or comments on choosing appropriate slide switch & if you already chose one on LCSC that works?  I'm pretty much looking for the cheapest one that is pcb mount and straight up.  But some cheaper ones I am finding are rated 0.3A or 0.5A.

Stefan Wagner Reply

@thyg Hi, I had the same concerns about the switch as you have. The ones I have (https://de.aliexpress.com/item/32964400942.html?spm=a2g0s.9042311.0.0.27424c4dDJ0k3c) are rated for only 3A, so I decided to test them and there were no problems.

thyg Reply

@wagiminator  OK Thank you and for others who may be wondering I have similar looking switches that are rated for 0.5A and 50V  (https://www.banggood.com/100pcs-SS12D00G3-2-Position-SPDT-1P2T-3-Pin-PCB-Panel-Mini-Vertical-Slide-Switch-p-1186328.html)  and inspired by this I gave them a test but they are overheating at 2A @ 5V.  So it is not just a matter of wattage which I was hoping for, we need the good switches.  I also tried placing a switch on the enable pin of the 6277, however for me anyway, that only disabled the boosting function, it did not shut off the battery completely, it still gave me battery voltage.

Stefan Wagner Reply

@thyg I think you must pull the enable pin to ground to shut it off completely. I have used this method in my TinyUPS project and it works very well. Maybe I will redesign the board a little bit so that the middle pin of the switch is connected to the enable pin and the other pins of the switch to B+ and GND. This way it should work with all switches. However, my switch doesn't even get warm...

thyg Reply

@wagiminator Ahhhhh thank you yes I had left the EN floating.  I gave it a lot of thought & I'm going to do my board with the EN pin method, now knowing it will work, and also because I don't have a good switch in stock already.  I don't think you should change your project, since you give the link to a cheap switch that works.  Thank you so much for this project!!

thyg Reply

Hi, is there a way to cut off the battery at 3.0V instead of the 2.4-2.6V it does now?  (I forgot where it cutoff but it was either 2.4 or 2.6).  Reason I ask is, when the voltage is so low and I try to charge the battery it only trickle charges at like 0.15A all the way up to 3.0V.  That takes hours. Then once it hits 3.0V it charges normally.  So I was thinking I might want to sacrifice battery life to improve the experience of quicker recharges.    Maybe I should ask a broader question, should I be thinking to be happy with the DW01 protection at 2.4V since that is the physical battery limitation, and then I should be using other methods to detect 3.0V and take a different action than a protection-shutoff like a beep or a warning LED or a separate mosfet?

Stefan Wagner Reply

@thyg Hi, you can replace the DW01A with a different protection IC, e.g. FS312F-G (2.9V). Keep in mind that the battery voltage does not only depend on its charging level but also on the current it's delivering in conjunction with its internal resistance. If you draw a lot of current the battery voltage decreases and rises again when you stop. That's a fundamental problem when trying to figure out the battery charging level by measuring the voltage in circuit. A better, but more complicated and expensive way is to use a dedicated battery gauge IC which is constantly measuring the current, calculating the mAh and comparing it with the capacity of the battery.

Stefan Wagner Reply

@thyg Hi, I couldn't resist and designed a power bank based on this circuit. The switch is working now the way we discussed earlier. https://easyeda.com/wagiminator/fp6277-power-bank

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