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USB/DC/Solar Lithium Ion/Polymer Charger

1 month ago 72
  • Description
  • Documents
  • BOM
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Description

This circuit is a charger for single-cell lithium (Li-Ion) and Polymer (LiPo) batteries. It can sources energy from DC jack connectors (two different dimensions), USB-C and solar panel. It uses MCP73871 which has the peculiarity to smartly adjust the current sank, making it ideal for solar-powered applications, where the available energy could be really scarce and high-varying over time.

The main application of this circuit is recharging a small battery of a weather station, which is a low power system and basically, not easily accessible for maintenance. So the battery life should be extended as much as possible. For this reason, I avoid recharge it at maximum capacity (set a high current threshold to stop it) and I limit the maximum recharge current to 100mA. However, these values can be changed replacing the value of the resistors (look at the schematic).

It does not integrate any protection for LiPo batteries (except the optional thermal monitor), so use batteries that are already shipped with integrated over charge, over discharge, over current, short circuit protection, and, optionally, over temperature protections.

This project is derived from the Adafruit USB / DC / Solar Lithium Ion/Polymer charger - v2. If you just need a cheap alternative to Adafruit board with no special form factor requirements, you can search on (Aliexpress)[https://www.aliexpress.com/af/mcp73871.html].

The main differences with Adafruit's version are:

  • USB-C connect instead Micro USB
  • Add DC Jack Connector 3.5x1.3mm
  • Protection diode on each input (except for USB-C)

Main Components

  • Microchip MCP73871
  • USB-C Connector
  • 2x JST-PH 2 pins
  • DC050 Jack connector (5.5x2.1mm)
  • DC045 Jack connector (3.5x1.3mm)

Assembling

You will need hot air gun for fine-pitched components like USB-C and MCP73871.

Usage

Except for USB-C, you can safely connect multiple power supplies (max 6V) because they are protected. Even if the battery is not connected, the board can delivery current to the load (4.2V, max current is regulated by R8-PROG1). Since the protection will dissipate a bit of energy (particularly precious limited when using solar panel), you may consider to short and remove a diode, at your own risk.

Changelog

  • 1.0.0 ⚠: First version. Wrong pinout of 5.5x2.1mm connector, it is easily fixable with a simple wire
  • 2.0.0 ❔: Fixed DC050 connector; larger outline to allow capacitor bending; add plated mounting holes for M3 screws; rounded corner

Versioning conventions

Each printed board has a version. Version advancements are ruled accordingly to Semantic Versioning.

To show the status of each version I use the following symbols:

  • A White Heavy Check Mark (✅) means that it is successfully tested;
  • A Negative Squared Cross Mark (❎) means that it was almost successfully tested (the main functionalities are fine), but there are bugs affecting minor functionalities;
  • A Warning Sign (⚠) means that the board is not usable out of the box but the bugs are fixable in DIY (decent) fashion;
  • A Cross Mark (❌) means that there are some problems that make it unusable;
  • A White Question Mark Ornament (❔) means not tested.

Documents

Solar Charger

Solar Charger

BOM

ID Name Designator Footprint Quantity
1 Header pins 1x04 H4 1X04 2.54MM HOLES HEADERS PINS 1
2 LED-0603_R LED3 LED0603_RED 1
3 10uF C1 C0603 1
4 4.7uF C3,C4 C0603 2
5 MBR120VLSFT1G D2,D3,D1 SOD-123F_L2.8-W1.8-LS3.7-RD 3
6 4700uF C2 CAP-TH_BD12.5-P5.00-D1.2-FD 1
7 LED-0603_B LED1 LED0603_BLUE 1
8 MCP73871-2AAI/ML U1 QFN-20_L4.0-W4.0-P0.50-BL-EP 1
9 JST_2-PIN_Female_Connector JST1,JST2 JST-PH-2-SMT-RA 2
10 10k R7,R8,RT2 R0603 3
11 270k R9 R0603 1
12 1k R1,R3,R2 R0603 3
13 ∞k R12 R0603 1
14 0k R11 R0603 1
15 5.1k R4,R5 R0603 2
16 10k RT1 R_AXIAL-0.3 1
17 100k R10 R0603 1
18 LED-0603_G LED2 LED0603_GREEN 1
19 Header pins 1x02 H3,H1,H2 1X02 2.54MM HOLES HEADERS PINS 3
20 DC050 J1 DC050 DC POWER CONNECTOR 1
21 DC-045B-13A J2 DC-IN-SMD_DC-045B-13A 1
22 USB-310F USB1 USB-TYPE-S-C8.64X7.25 1

Attachments

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