KM409 LC meter

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Description

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cover.jpg

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A LOGIC IDEA

000 SCHEME.png

THANKS TO JLCPCB !!!

001 PCB.jpeg

FINAL PRODUCT

002 METER.jpeg

L/C METER

Theory A capacitance + inductance they form a resonant circuit. He is vibrating. The frequency of vibrations depends on the capacity and inductance. When we add to the resonant LC circuit, the coil (in series to the coil) - or the capacitor (parallel to the capacitor), then the resonant frequency will decrease.

Practice (resonant method)

L/C circuit is cooperates with the LM393D comparator, from which the output is fed back loop to the LC circuit. Thanks to this, the vibrations do not expire. The comparator output also gives a rectangular signal to the input pin of the microcontroller. This signal has the resonance frequency of the LC circuit. The frequency of this signal is measured by the microcontroller. Knowing the inductance values and capacities of the LC generator based on the frequency difference, we can calculate the value of the attached capacitance or inductance to the LC circuit.

Used formulas:

003 formula cown.png

Where:

Cown – capacitance of LC circuit [pF]

Cref - a referential knowing value of capacitance which was added to LC circuit (generator) [pF]

F1 – a resonant frequency of LC circuit before add Cref capacitor [Hz]

F2 – a resonant frequency of LC circuit after add Cref capacitor [Hz]

004 formula Lown.png

Where:

Lown – a own inductance of LC circuit (without added any other inductor) [uH]

Cown – a own capacitance of LC circuit (without added any other capacitor) [uF]

F1 – a frequency of resonant LC circuit [Hz]

005 formula cx.png

Where:

Cx - is a unknown value of capacitance which was added to LC circuit (generator) [pF]

Cown – a own capacitance of LC circuit [pF]

F1 – a resonant frequency of LC circuit before add Cx capacitor [Hz]

F2 – a resonant frequency of LC circuit after add Cx capacitor [Hz]

006 formulaLx.png

Where:

Lx - is a unknown value of inductance which was added to LC circuit (generator) [uH]

Lown – a own inductance of LC circuit [uH]

F1 – a resonant frequency of LC circuit before add Lx inductor [Hz]

F2 – a resonant frequency of LC circuit after add Lx inductor [Hz]

MEASURE FOR BIGGER CAPACITORS - ELECTROLYTIC

Charging time to capacitance by constant voltage.

When we charging capacitor by constant voltage we can observed a curve of charge:

007 exponent.png

We can see the charging time if depend from resistance and capacitance. And these two values form a time constant called tau τ which units is the seconds [s] So from above diagram we can get the known: After one τ the voltage on the capacitor get the 0.632 E value So if our E have 5V, after the τ time on the capacitor voltage will present 3.16V. AND FINALLY – when we charge the capacitor up to 0.632E, knowing the value of R and measuring the charging time, we can very easily calculate the capacity of the capacitor.

008 heureca.png

If we look at the diagram, notice that the capacitor can be charged by one or two parallel resistors RES1 and RES2.

Therefore, the program uses one more formula:

009 res3.png

WHAT YOU MUST DO TO GET A HIGH ACCURACY OF MEASUREMENT.

Start with RES1 and RES3 soldering, and then measure and store their values. After assembling the whole and connecting the power supply, the VCC supply value should be measured, then the PR1 potentiometer should be set to 0.632 VCC at TP (arround 3.16V).

The FIRMWARE

Wrote in assembler in two options – for ATmega8A or ATmega328P – why 328P? Cause I got a few unused Arduino  so I don’t need to purchase M8A 

After power on we can see three screens:

010 AFTER RESET.PNG

Honestly, after the first power on third screen going to calibrate menu, which I’ll describe later.

After reset we can put capacitor into the socket and measure capacitance. After pressed the left button we can see the L measure screen or the second one after put inductor into the left socket.

011 L measure.png

Next one press the left button invoke the third menu for CE measure: In the right socket we can do measure of electrolytic capacitors.

012 CE measure.png

After this, the left button go back to small capacitors measure menu.

Al the time by press right button we can invoke 7 specials menu. In this mode the right button select menu, and after the select any one by pressing left button execute it and go inside.

How the program calculate capacitance:

  1. Simply start charge of the capacitor and counting the clocks edges.

  2. After charging capacitor program multiply by 125 value of counted clock edges, cause crystal have 8MHZ for translate to decimal relation to seconds. And divide by 10.

  3. After that value is divided by RES2100 (for better precision) or by RES3 (two parallely connected resistors RES3=RES1RES2/[RES1+RES2] ) – result in [uF] or in 0.01 [uF]

MEASURE MENU

013 menus.png

MENU COMPENSATE:

014 MENU COMPENSATE.png

After select his menu program compensate the frequency value, which can be a bit floating depend from thermical values. And go back to last used menu of measure.

MENU RESET:

015 MENU RESET.png

Simply restart of firmware, and lose the compensate value.

MENU CALIBRATE:

016 MENU CALIBRATE.png

Most probably don’t need describe this menu, everything is on the following step by step screens. Note: You can choose in the next menu the reference value of the calibrate capacitor, which you’ll use.

MENU SET REF VALUE # – you can change the referential value your cap. for calibrate if you need.

017 MENU CREF.png

MENU SET COWN VALUE:

You can change the value of capacitor in LC generator circuit, after this the coil value will be recalculated. In the last 4 menu you can set the value by pressing left button and right button for confirm.

018 MENU COWN.png

MENU SET RES1 VALUE:

Here you should set the RES1 value, which you measured after soldered RES1.

019 MENU RES1.png

MENU SET RES2 VALUE:

Here you should set the RES2 value, which you measured after soldered RES2.

020 MENU RES2.png

ADDITIONS and CURIOS

A bit unrolling the second one formula for clarity and understand how to do it on the integers numbers.

021 formula Lown constant.png

We got here a constant 1/4PI^2, also we dividing by [pF] so we can do sth like that:

100 000 000 000 000 000 000/4/Pi/Pi = 2 533 029 591 058 444 286

And now: 2 533 029 591 058 444 286 /F1/F1/C

BECAUSE the 2 533 029 591 058 444 286 value is oversized by a few decades the result is in 0.01 [uH] what gave resolution in 10 [nH].

Just for example how program calculate Cx or Lx and don’t going to to lower values using integers:

Cx = (Cown x [(F1 x F1)-(F2 x F2)])/F2/F2

So the first result = (Cown x [(F1 x F1)-(F2 x F2)]) is huge enough to divide by square of F2…

KNOWN PROBLEMS:

C9 10uF doesn’t work properly, breaking oscillations – solution – replaced to unpolarized LM393D damaged under soldering probably – breaking oscillations – replaced to new.

eot

Documents

Sheet_1

KM409_PCB

BOM

ID Name Designator Footprint Quantity Manufacturer Part Manufacturer Supplier Supplier Part Price LCSC Assembly Mounted BOM_Manufacturer Part BOM_Supplier Part BOM_Supplier BOM_Manufacturer
1 POWERSUPPLY_DC21MMX G$1 POWERSUPPLY_DC-21MM 1
2 2W10 D1 BRIDGE-WOB 1 2W10 C3064 LCSC MDD
3 LM7805CT U1 TO-220_HORIZONTAL 1
4 1000u C1 CAP-D13.0XF5.0 1
5 100u C2 CAP 1
6 100nF C3,C4,C5 1206 3 1206B104K251NT C115397 LCSC FH
7 10uH L1 AXIAL-0.4 1
8 MEGA8-P U3 DIP28-300 1
9 16x2 LCD (HD44780) U4 LCD1602 1 16x2 LCD (HD44780)
10 10k PR1,PR2,PR3 HELITRIM 329Y 3 3386P-1-101LF C125022 LCSC Bochen
11 8MHz X1 HC-49S 1 HC-49S 8MHz 20pF 30PPM C107425 LCSC TAE
12 BUZZERHMB1275-12B BUZZER1 DIP-BUZZER-12X7.5 1 buzzerHMB1275-12B C96094 LCSC HNDZ
13 100n C6 1206 1
14 33p C7,C8 1206 2
15 1M R1 1206 1
16 SWITCH-MOMENTARYPTH S1,S2 TACTILE-PTH 2
17 100k R2,R3,R4 1206 3
18 10k R5,R6 1206 2
19 2.2k R7 1206 1
20 4.7k R8,R9,R15 1206 3
21 3k R11 1206 1
22 300 R12 1206 1
23 1k R13 1206 1
24 10u C9 CASE-A_3216 1
25 1nF 2% C11 RAD-0.1 1
26 470nF C10 RAD-0.1 1
27 Listwa ARK2 U5,U6 LISTWA ARK2 2
28 100uH L2 AXIAL-0.4 1
29 LL4148 D2 LL-34 1 LL4148 C181117 LCSC Hottech
30 BC857 Q1 SOT-23(SOT-23-3) 1 BC857 C148244 LCSC SEMTECH
31 BC847 Q3,Q4 SOT-23(SOT-23-3) 2 BC847 C8574 LCSC CJ
32 HK19F-DC_5V-SHG K2 HK19F-DC5V-SHG(REAL) 1 HK19F-DC 9V-SHG C38759 LCSC HUIKE
33 LM393D U2 SOIC-8_150MIL 1 LM393D C8214 LCSC HTC

Attachments

Filename Download
KM409 M328P.bin
KM409 M8A.bin
FIRMWARE SOURCE.ZIP
DESCRIBE.pdf

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